Default PBKDF2 Iteration Count for Encrypted Keys Generated by OpenSSL

When generating keys with openssl you have the option to encrypt them. It is done by specifying a cipher alogrithm, for example

openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:2048 -aes-128-cbc -out key.pem 

generates a 2048 bit RSA key and encrypts it with AES in CBC mode. OpenSSL will prompt you to provide a pass-phrase for the encryption. It is important to understand how that pass-phrase/password will be used to derive a key for the AES encryption. The whole encryption scheme is defined by something called PBES2 1, which in turn uses PBKDF2. The important factor on the computation complexity of PBKDF2, is the number of hash-iterations used.

OpenSSL doesn’t have an option in its command-line utilities to control that number of iterations. However, that number is allowed to change pretty much arbitrarly by the standard, so it is part of the ASN1 representation of the generated encrypted key.

$ openssl asn1parse -i -in key.pem  | head
    0:d=0  hl=4 l=1311 cons: SEQUENCE          
    4:d=1  hl=2 l=  73 cons:  SEQUENCE          
    6:d=2  hl=2 l=   9 prim:   OBJECT            :PBES2
   17:d=2  hl=2 l=  60 cons:   SEQUENCE          
   19:d=3  hl=2 l=  27 cons:    SEQUENCE          
   21:d=4  hl=2 l=   9 prim:     OBJECT            :PBKDF2
   32:d=4  hl=2 l=  14 cons:     SEQUENCE          
   34:d=5  hl=2 l=   8 prim:      OCTET STRING      [HEX DUMP]:F3098873E5AB1A81
   44:d=5  hl=2 l=   2 prim:      INTEGER           :0800
   48:d=3  hl=2 l=  29 cons:    SEQUENCE       

The line saying INTEGER :0800 states the number of iteration used (in hex notation) for the generated key.pem. It means that at least for OpenSSL 1.0.1, the default number of iterations is 0x800=2048. This number is relatively low in modern standards2.


  1. As the name suggest there is also PBES1, which is now obsolete. The main difference is that PBES1 only allowed DES and RC2 to be used as cipers. See RFC 2898 for more details. 
  2. Apple uses 10,000 iterations for iTunes passwords, and LastPass defaults to 5,000 

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