Tag Archives: Snippets

Preventing Directory Traversal in Python

Consider the following use case:

PREFIX = '/home/user/files/'
full_path = os.path.join(PREFIX, filepath)
read(full_path, 'rb')
...

Assuming that filepath is user-controlled, a malicious user user might attempt a directory traversal (like setting filepath to ../../../etc/passwd). How can we make sure that filepath cannot traverse “above” our prefix? There are of course numerous solutions to sanitizing input against directory traversalthat. The easiest way (that I came up with) to do so in python is:

filepath = os.normpath('/' + filepath).lstrip('/')

It works because it turns the path into an absolute path, normalizes it and makes it relative again. As one cannot traverse above /, it effectively ensures that the filepath cannot go outside of PREFIX.

Post updated: see the comments below for explanation of the changes.

URL-Safe Timestamps using Base64

Passing around timestamps in URLs is a common task. We usually want our URLs to be as shortest as possible. I’ve found using Base64 to result in the shortest URL-safe representation, just 6 chars. This compares with the 12 chars of the naive way, and 8 chars when using hex representation.

The following Python functions allow you to build and read these 6 chars URL-safe timestamps:
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